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Combat Tactics

This section entails the basic combat tactics used in conventional and unconventional warfare. These tactics are broken up into different categories for clarity. The research and information presented was taken from various sources and will provide a thorough overview of that combat tactic. For more detailed infotmation, on a topic, please refer to the links which are presented on this webpage. This webpage is broken up into Army training, and Martial Arts training. to learn more about lifting and bodybuilding goto my dungeoun.

Why are OPORDERS important:

Operations orders are necessary to plan out your operation and ensure that nothing is to chance. There are many who say that the plan goes to shit once the first bullet is fired. But that's inaccurate. Most times a plan is simply adjusted based upon the situation. But a plan doesn't always go to shit, if it is a good plan.

But what defined a good plan. A good plan is flexible, clear and timely. If you make your plan too rigid, it will be very hard to adjust and adapt your plan to the situation when the situation changes. If you make your plan too vague, your subordinates will not have any clarity and leaders will have to make things up without higher guidance.

A plan has to be timely too because an excellent plan planned late doesn't give your subordinates time to prepare themselves. It's why quick fragos (fragmantation orders) are very important. A full oporder can have two or more fragoes and also as more intelligence is prepared you can refine your plan at the same time as your men/women prepare for the operation. It's better to have a good plan timely than an perfect plan planned late.

Below is a link to my practice Oporders as well as a template for the 5 paragraph oporder.

ARMY Values

  1. Loyalty
  2. Duty
  3. Respect
  4. Selfless Service
  5. Honor
  6. Integrity
  7. Personal courage

The Army Ranger Creed

Recognizing the fact that I volunteered to be a Ranger, fully knowing the hazards of my chosen profession, will endeavor to uphold the prestige, honor and high esprit de corp of the Rangers.

Aacknowledging the fact that a Ranger is a more elite soldier, who arrives at the cutting edge of battle by land, sea, or air. I accept the fact that as a Ranger, my country expects to me move further, faster, and fight harder than any other soldier.

Never shall I fail my comrades, I will always keep myself mentally alert, physically strong, and morally straight, and I will shoulder more than my share of the task whatever it may be 100% and then some.

Gallantly I will show the world that I am a specially selected and well trained soldier. My courtesy to superior officers, neatness of dress, and care of equipment shall set the example for others to follow.

Energetically I will meet the enemies of my country. I shall defeat them on the field of battle for I am better trained and will fight with all my might. Surrender is not a ranger word. I will never leave a fallen comrade to fall into the hands of the enemy and under no circumstances will I embarrass my country.

Readily will I display the intestinal fortitude required to fight on to the Ranger objective and complete the mission, though I be the lone survivor.

Troop Leading Procedures (TLP)

(The troop leading procedures is the basis of Army planning. Within the TLP is the estimate of the situation also called MDMP (Military Decision Making Process), usually within the section [Make A Tenative Plan]. METT-TC is where you start in making a plan but within that is OACOK. So as you see with every plan it starts with an evaluation of the terrain and enemy. The TLP is formed most times within a 5 paragraph order as above is the OPORDER,FRAGO,and WARNO. Remember these are (recommanded) formats but a plan can also be in any form.
  1. Receive the Mission
  2. Issue the warning order
  3. Make a tenative plan
  4. Initiate troop moevements
  5. Perform reconnaissance
  6. Complete the plan
  7. Issue the Complete order
  8. Supervise

Estimation of the Situation

(The details of "making the tenative plan")
  1. Detailed analysis of the mission
  2. Situation and Course of Action
  3. Analysis and Course of Action
  4. Compare and Course of Action
  5. Decision

METT-TC

(The details of "Developing a course of Action")
  1. Mission
  2. Enemy
  3. Terrain
  4. Troops
  5. Time
  6. Civilian Conciderations

OACOK

(The details of "Terrain")
  1. Obstacles
  2. Avenues of Approach
  3. Cover and Concealment
  4. Observations and Fields of Fire
  5. Key Terrain

Five Paragraph Operation Order

  1. Situation
  2. Mission
  3. Execution
  4. Service support
  5. Command and Signal

Nine Line Medivac

  1. Location of the pickup site
  2. Frequency and Callsign at pickup site
  3. Number of Patients by precedence
    • Urgent - Save Life/limb/eyesight EVAC w/in 2 hours
    • Priority - Evac w/in 4 hours
    • Routine - Evac w/in 24 hours
    • Tactical Immediate - ASAP
  4. Special Equipment
  5. Number of Patients by type
    • Litter
    • Ambulatory
  6. Type of wound or injury
  7. Method of marking the pickup site
  8. Patient Nationality and Status
  9. Zone Description

SALUTE report

  1. Size
  2. Activity
  3. Location
  4. Unit
  5. Time
  6. Equipment

ACE report

  1. Ammo
  2. Casulty
  3. Equipment

Leadership Principles

What is leadership ? In my opinion, and experience, it is simply stated in this statement. "Example is leadership" To have anyone follow you you have to blaze your own path and convince others to follow the path you blaze. You may not be able to convince everyone; but by blazing the trail; it is the epitome of leadership. General George S. Patton was one of those leaders. He never waited for anyone; but blazed a trail for his soldiers to follow.

My personal three rules of leadership, which I have come up with through experience are:

  1. Lead by Example - To lead by example means you share difficulties and joys with your soldiers. You are willing to do anything that you would order them to do. Even if you aren't the leader of the group you show the lead by example to others so that you show the way. Being tactically proficient is leading by example.
  2. Convincing others - A leader must be a salesman. You have to be able to convince your subbordinates the value of the mission at hand. Why it is important. Simply ordering them to do it will only go so far but won't give you the undying dedication to the mission but instilling and motivating them to the mission and to follow you are examples of leadership.
  3. Living with your decisions - When you make a decision, you have to live with the choices made. Many decisions have good points and bad points. Living with your decisons is basically saying to yourself and your heart, I have weighted the options and this choice is the best one of them all. I am comfortable that I have made the "best" decision of the choices of decisions available.

But in general the best statement dealing with leadership are the infantry words: Follow ME !!

LISTED BELOW ARE THE LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES BASED UPON FM 22-100

  1. BE
    • Technically and Tactically Proficient: Can accomplish all tasks to standard that are required to accomplish the wartime mission.
    • Posess professional character traits: Courage, Committment, Candor, Competance, and Integrity.
  2. KNOW
    • Four major factors of leadership and how they effect each other. The Led, The Leader, The Situation, and Communications.
    • Yourself and seek self-important: Strengths and Weaknesses of your character, knowledge, and skills. Continually develop your strengths and work on overcoming your weaknesses.
    • Your soldier and lookout for their well-being. Train them for the rigors of combat, take care of their physical/safety needs, and dicipline/reward them.
  3. DO
    • SEEK RESPONSIBILITY and TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR YOUR ACTIONS: Leaders must exercise initiative, be resourceful, and take advantage of opportunities on the battlefield that will lead to victory. Accept just criticism and take corrective actions for mistakes.
    • MAKE SOUND AND TIMELY DECISIONS: Rapidly assess the situation and make sound decisions. Gather essential information, announce decisions in time for soldiers to react, and consider short/long-term effects of your decision.
    • SET THE EXAMPLE: Be a role model for your soldiers. Set high, but attainable standards, be willing to do what you require of your soldiers, share dangers and hardships with your soldiers.
    • KEEP YOUR SUBORDINATES INFORMED: Keeping your subordinates informed helps them make decisions and execute plans within your intent, encourage initiative, improve teamwork, and enhance morale.
    • DEVELOP A SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY IN SUBORDINATES: teach, challenge and develop subordinates. Delegation indicates you trust your subordinates and make them even more responsibility.
    • ENSURE THE TASK IS UNDERSTOOD, SUPERVISED AND ACCOMPLISHED: soldiers need to know what you expect from them. What you want done, what the standard is, and when you want it.
    • BUILD THE TEAM: train and cross train your soldiers until they are confident in the team's technical/tactical abilities. Develop a team spirit that motivates them to go willingly and confidently into combat
    • EMPLOY YOUR UNIT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ITS CAPABILITIES: know the capabilities and limitations of your unit. as a leader you are responsibile to recognize both of these factors and employ your patrol accordingly.

Tactical formations

Listed below are the fireteam, squad, platoon, company, etc formations showing how many people and commanders are within the Army.

Movement

In Platoon and squad movement there are five basic positions fo movement; and three basic ways of movement. Of these five different positions Other formations can be utilized and used. I will put in the basic positions and movements. I will also make mention of some of the combination formations that you can see are formed up by the basic five positions.

General

To survive on the battlefield, stealth, diversion, and security must be enforced in all tactical movements. The leader must be skilled in all movement techniques.

Formations

Formations are relations in elements and soldiers in relations with each other. Squads use formations based upon a METT-TC analysis. Leaders must be where they can best form control formations. This allows the fire team leaders to lead by example: "Follow me and do as I do". All soldiers in the team must be able to see the leader. In fireteam formations, there are five basic positions. The Echelon, Vee, Wedge, Line and File. The pictures below show the formations.

army formations

These are basically the five basic army formations. Usually the people are spaced 10 meters apart from each other; so if a grenade is thrown; it lessens casulties and gives a better coverage area in firefights. Of course this isn't a rule set in stone and you have to set the spacing based upon your terrain.

Some other formations are the:

Squad Formation - which is two echelon formations with a teamleader in between the two echelons. The forward echlon is a left echelon and the rear echelon is a right echelon. This makes 9 soldiers in the squad. A squad consists of 6-10 soldiers. A Platoon consists of four squads. The lead person is the point man.

squad formation image

Ranger File - a small squad consisting of 6 - 10 soldiers in a file formation. The team leader is usually the third person in the file. The point man is the lead person.

ranger formation image

Platoon Formation - A platoon formation is basically two to four squad formations together. The platoon leader is in the center of the formation, or in a place where he has access and control of the platoon.

Movement Techniques

There are three different types of movement techniques. There is Travelling movement where contact isn't likely and speed is necessary. There is Travelling Overwatch where enemy contact is where enemy contact is possible. Then there is bounded overwatch where enemy contact is likely, or when crossing a danger area.

  1. Travelling movement
    • In this technique the distance between squads is 20 meters and 10 meters between individuals; and has the following characteristics.
      1. More control than travelling overwatch but less than bounded overwatch.
      2. Minimum dispersion
      3. Maximum Speed
      4. Minimum security
  2. Travelling Overwatch
    • This is the basic travelling movement technique and has the following characteristics.
      1. The distance between individuals is 20 meter and 50 meters between teams.
      2. In platoon travelling overwatch, the lead squad is far enough ahead of the rest of the platoon to detect or engage and enemy before the enemy observes or fires on the main body. However it must be close enough to be supported by the platoon's small arm's fires. This is normally between 50 - 100 meters depending upon vegetation, light, weather conditions and terrain.
      3. In a column formation, only the lead squad should be using the travelling overwatch; however if great dispersion is desired, all squads should use it.
      4. In other formations, all squads use travelling overwatch unless the platoon leader specifies not to.
      5. Travelling overwatch has the following characteristics.
        1. Good control
        2. Maximum dispersion
        3. Good Speed
        4. Good security forward
  3. Bounded Overwatch
    • The distance between individuals is still 20 meters. The distance between teams and squads varies.
    • Each squad and platoon has a bounding element and an overwatch element when the bounding element is moving the overwatch element watches the bounding element as their security. Then the bounding element and overwatch element switch roles.
    • The bounding length depends upon the terrain, visability and control.
    • Before a bound the leader gives the folliwing instructions to his subordinates.
      1. Direction of the enemy if known.
      2. Position of overwatch element.
      3. Next overwatch position.
      4. Route to the bounding element.
      5. What to do when the boundng element reaches the next position.
      6. How the elements receive follow-on orders.
    • In Bounded Overwatch there are two types of bounds.
      1. Successive bounds - Overwatching from a distance.
      2. Alternating bounds - Leapfrogging each other to objective.
    • The Bounded Overwatch has the following characteristics.
      1. Maximum Control
      2. Maximum Dispersion
      3. Minimum Speed
      4. Maximum Security

General Orders

  1. I will guard everything within the Limits of my post, and quit my post only when properly relieved.
  2. I will obey my special orders and perform all of my duties in a military manner.
  3. I will report any violation, emergencies, or anything not covered in my instructions to the commander of the relief.

Transmissions of a call for Fire

Example 1:
  1. First transmission: Observer identification and warning order
    Ex. H24 THIS IS N59 ADJUST FIRE, OVER
  2. Second Transmission: Target Location
    Ex. GRID CF123456, over
  3. Third Transmission: Target description. method of engagement, method of fire and control
    Ex. TANK IN THE OPEN, ICM IN EFFECT, OVER
Example 2 (GRID MISSION):

Observer Firing Unit
F24 this is J42 adjust fire OVER,

Grid WM180513, Direction 0530, OVER

infantry platoon dug in, OVER

SHOT, OUT

SPLASH, OUT

end of mission, 15 casulties, platoon dispersed, OVER

J42 this is F24 adjust fire OUT,

Grid WM180513, Direction 0530, OUT

infantry platoon dug in, OUT

SHOT, OVER

SPLASH, OVER

end of mission, 15 casulties, platoon dispersed, OUT

Example 3 (SHIFT FROM KNOWN POINT):

Observer Firing Unit
F24 this is J42 adjust fire, shift AB1001, OVER

Direction 2420, RIGHT 400, ADD 400, OVER

5 T72 Tanks at POL site, OVER

I authenicate, TANGO OVER

SHOT, OUT

SPLASH, OUT

end of mission, 2 tanks destroyed, 3 in woodline, OVER

F24 this is J42 adjust fire, shift AB1001, OUT

Direction 2420, RIGHT 400, ADD 400, OUT

5 T72 Tanks at POL site, I authenticate Juliet November, OVER

**************

SHOT, OVER

SPLASH, OVER

end of mission, 2 tanks destroyed, 3 in woodline, OUT

Schofield's Definition of Discipline

The Discipline which makes soldiers in a free country, reliable in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment. On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy than make an Army. It is possible to impart instruction and give commands in a manner and such a tone of voice as to inspire in the soldier no feeling, but an intense desire to obey, while the opposite manner and tone of voice cannot fail to excite strong resentment and a desire to obey. The one mode or the other of dealing with subbordinates springs from the corresponding spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect which is due to others cannot fail to inspire in them regard for himself while he who feels and hance manifests disrespect towards others, especially his inferiors, cannot fail but to inspire in them hatred for himself.